Paper 3 IB Psych

Topics: Sampling, Scientific method, Qualitative research Pages: 7 (1857 words) Published: February 26, 2014
Quantitative datarelating to, measuring, or measured by the quantity of something rather than its quality Qualitative data relating to, measuring, or measured by the quality of something rather than its quantity

Strengths of qualitative data:
Qualitative research provides more insight into the sampled data, as their open ended nature mean they are less limiting of the information provided; they also eliminate the a priori assumptions used in quantitative data

Limitations of qualitative data:
Qualitative data cannot be directly and mathematically compared, and thus comparisons are only nominal and subjective

Ability to generalise results from qualitative studies:
Because qualitative data is normally interpretative, their results cannot be easily generalized

Ethical considerations:
Some participants may not be comfortable with being on record for their qualitative statements, or may be recognizable, and thus recording qualitative may impede on the participants’ confidentiality

Appropriate sampling techniques:

* Interviews

* Observations

* Open-ended surveys

Effects of participant expectations and researcher bias in qualitative research: They may impose demand characteristics upon otherwise qualitative data

Importance of credibility in qualitative research:
As qualitative research is not quantitative and very subjective, great care must be taken to ensure that recorded data credibly reflects the observer's thoughts

Effect of triangulation on the credibility/trustworthiness of qualitative research: Triangulation adds another level of interpretation and subjectivity to qualitative research, and thus impedes on credibility and trustworthiness

Reflexibility in qualitative research:
It is difficult to determine a mathematical reflexive relationship because the data is qualitative

Interviews
Semi-structured interviewsA list of themes is provided to guide the interview process. This provides flexibility for the interview. Questions are not previously provided, meaning they will be worded differently in each interview. This way, the answers will be more in depth.Focus group This approach to an interview allows the participants to explore ideas in a different way than how they would in a one to one interview. Group discussions are encouraged and this enables participants to talk freely and generate their own questions. Narrative interviews This approach is based in the assumption that humans are storytellers. These stories constructed by the participants should not seen as representations of the world, but rather, interpretations of it. The purpose of this type of interview is to see how people put an order to events to make sense of their lives. The life-story interview is the most extended form of a narrative interview. Another approach focuses on how an individual experiences a specific event. Considerations involved before, during and after an interview Before:

* Sampling methods: interviews will often use a small sample for their interview. An adequate sampling technique must be chosen because this will impact the extent to which results can be generalised * Training of the interviewer: this is important to avoid interviewer effects. For example, non-verbal signs can have a large impact on the response of an individual (e.g. Interviewer frowning might prompt participant to change their response) * Choice of interviewer: People may respond differently to different genders, age, ethnicity, etc. To keep this from affecting results, a range of different interviewers should be used. * Interview guide: This is used by the interviewer to guide the interview and make sure they all follow similar guidelines. In this, a different range of questions can be used such as:

* descriptive - invite the participant to give a general account on something * structural - invite participants to identify structures and...
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