Assessing Poter S Framework For Nationa

Topics: Case study, Turkey, United Nations Pages: 7 (5212 words) Published: December 9, 2014
Journal of Business Research 55 (2002) 509 – 515

Assessing Porter’s framework for national advantage: the case of Turkey ¨ zlem O
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Department of Management, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey Received 1 February 1999; accepted 1 May 2000

This study applies Porter’s diamond framework, which tries to identify the sources of international competitive advantage, to Turkey. The major objective is to contribute towards an improvement of this framework, and thus towards a better understanding of the sources of competitive advantage. The study also aims to shed some light on the competitive structure of the Turkish industry. The findings are generally supportive of Porter, meaning that the diamond framework works in a developing country setting. The results suggest, however, some major areas in the framework (especially domestic rivalry and the role of government) where one or more of the Turkish case studies contradict the Porter hypothesis. D 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: International competitiveness; Competitive advantage; Diamond framework; Turkey

Porter’s influential study published in The Competitive
Advantage of Nations (1990) has undoubtedly enhanced
our understanding of competitive advantage. His research
has also stimulated many further applications of the
framework. Therefore, in addition to the 10 nations
included in the original work, the framework offered by
Porter has also been applied to other countries (e.g.,
Canada, New Zealand, Norway) and regions (e.g., MA).
Most of them have been studied by the project teams
headed by Porter himself, and they have been largely
validating. Moreover, the majority of nations studied are
developed countries. In addition, the framework has been
the subject of much criticism and created a lively debate in the academic literature.
This study applies Porter’s diamond framework to Turkey, a middle-income developing country, which has recently opened up its economy to the international market.
The major objective is to contribute towards the improvement of the diamond framework, and thus towards a better understanding of the sources of competitive advantage. The
study also aims to shed some light on the competitive
structure of the Turkish industry and on the main sources

* Tel.: +90-312-210-3061; fax: +90-312-210-1243.
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E-mail address: [email protected] (O

of competitive advantage of a number of key sectors of the
Turkish economy.
Accordingly, after identifying the internationally competitive industries and clusters by using Porter’s methodology, I have conducted detailed case studies of five Turkish industries — namely, glass, construction, leather clothes, automobiles and the flat steel industries. In addition to

showing that the framework can be successfully applied to
a developing country, the selected Turkish industries reveal how well the diamond can explain the sources of advantage in the particular case in question and signal the problematic areas in the framework. The case studies

enable us to ascertain the usefulness of the diamond
framework. One specific contribution afforded by this
study is to determine whether the diamond can be used
to analyse the sources of advantage or disadvantage in an
uncompetitive industry.
The structure of the paper is as follows: I first explain the analytical framework, Porter’s diamond, and provide a
summary of the key criticisms of the model. The noteworthy
results obtained by an analysis of trade data identifying the patterns of advantage in Turkey follow. Lastly, I present a
summary of the key findings derived from the five Turkish
industry case studies and discuss the main implications of
these findings for Porter’s study in particular and for the sources of advantage in general.

0148-2963/02/$ – see front matter D 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 1 4 8 - 2 9 6 3 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 1 6 7 - 3


References: DD, editors. Productivity, growth and Canada’s international competitiveness. Ontario: John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic
Policy, 1993.
Ashgate, 1999.
Porter ME. The competitive advantage of nations. New York: The Free
Press, 1990.
Yin RK. Case study research: design and methods. 2nd ed. London:
Sage, 1994.
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