Within this essay I will discuss how Cognitivism, Behaviourism and Constructivism affect education through a range of case studies. I will use experiences which I have seen as first hand in local Primary and Secondary Schools. I will also show a number of opinions from Educational Theorists as well as provide different graphs and pictures to show how the approaches are implemented in the classroom. To conclude on each approach I will give my own opinion. Teaching Approach
The Literacy Specialist within the school recommended Brian to be assessed by the Education Board and assessment confirmed that Brian suffers from dyslexia. Once Brian received the diagnosis it was a matter of urgency for the teacher to work in co-operation with the Literacy provider. It was vital in addressing Brian’s Literacy problems that the teacher was advised to have expectations for Brian that were suitable for his learning difficulty. The class teacher was therefore asked to lighten Brian’s workload and give less homework of which caused a lot of frustration for Brian and his mother. Now the teacher and Literacy specialist realised what the problem with Brian was it was important for Barry to feel a connection with Literacy. Whilst in the classroom it was important he did not feel “Stupid” or isolated within the classroom. Results/Benefits
Below the graph shows the improvement of readers after one week’s assistance when diagnosed with dyslexia.
For Brian who is an eight year old his grade level with in the class will increase by 2.5 levels after one week. The school have decided to give Brian two hours per week with the Literacy specialist to improve Literacy. The fact that Brian’s Dyslexia is being addressed by the school will help Brian’s own confidence grow. Within the classroom the teacher is also helping to use computer games to develop Numeracy Skills. Also during lessons such as History the number of words written on the page is reduced, written in large fonts and often in different colours or post-its. This helps Brian vastly to understand the questions being asked as different colours help Brian to see writing more clearly. Theoretical Explanation
Brian is an example of the Cognitivism approach to learning. Jean Piaget (1952) believed humans developed a mental image of the world around them and they experienced whether the image is accurate by constantly testing against reality. This theory would involve pupils in the classroom learning a new lesson in class and testing it out in theory. Furthermore Jerome Bruner (1966) focused on learning and developed the Spiral Learning Model which should be arranged in a spiral manner which the student should continually build on what they already know. As Brian becomes accustomed to reading day to day he will start processing information into long-term memory. This will then allow the spiral to occur as he develops as a person he can continue to build on the original learnt information. Ausubel (1978) offers the” Subsumption Theory” which connects new skills or ideas to a larger scope of past experiences. He believes learning occurs cognitive models are in a state of continuous transformation. Essentially Cognitive theorists believe that learning comes from the internal mental environment. It must noted however that Cognitivism can be limit the amount of knowledge learned as many are prepared to achieve the minimum standard.
Case Study 2
The nature of Michael’s behaviour alerted the Head of his year group. The fact that the Year Head had been in position for over 15 years, meant that she had seen symptoms of various special needs throughout the school. Although her instinct was Michael suffered from a mild form of A.D.H.D (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), a further health assessment confirmed her first fears. The school contacted the parents and it was agreed they form-teacher, Head of Year and parents would meet each month for face to face...
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Vygotsky, L.S (1978) Mind and Soceity: The development of higher mental processes
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