Determinants of Violence in the Greek Football League a Case Study of Paok Fc Supporters

Topics: Case study, Violence, Association football Pages: 43 (13595 words) Published: November 5, 2012
Dedicated to PAOK FC supporters all over the world.

Abstract

This essay aims to unveil the opinions, thoughts and perceptions of Greek fans as far as the causes of violent incidents in the Greek football league are concerned. In the first part of this research project some theoretical considerations about determinants of violence, crime and delinquency in general and in sports are being analysed. For the purposes of this study I contacted a small-scale case study research project with 300 PAOK Thessaloniki FC supporters; in an attempt to determine the factors that contribute to the genesis or escalation of violence in the Greek football league. The research findings of this project have been categorised and analysed in five major areas: a) factors bearing on the enjoyment of matches, b) fencing and segregation, c) police, policing and football crowds d) corruption in the Greek football league and e) politics and football. Those areas were not chosen randomly. They were highlighted from the fans themselves as factors that promote violence in football grounds. Contents

1. Introduction- 5 -
2. Theoretical considerations and literature review- 8 -
2.1 Violence in sports: Definitions and theoretical considerations- 8 - 2.2 Literature review.- 20 -
3. The survey.- 24 -
3.1 PAOK supporters: An overview and ideological profile- 24 - 3.2 Methodology and research approach.- 26 -
3.3 Data collection- 30 -
3.4 Data analysis and research findings- 37 -
3.5 Characteristics and viewing habits of respondents.- 38 - 3.6 Factors bearing on the enjoyment of matches.- 42 -
3.7 Fencing and segregation- 46 -
3.7 Police, policing and football crowds- 49 -
3.8 Corruption in the Greek football- 52 -
3.9 Politics and football.- 54 -
4. Conclusions- 56 -
Bibliography- 59 -
Internet resources- 64 -
Newspapers- 65 -
Appendix- 66 -

1. Introduction

The origins of football could be found in ancient China. Around 200 BC a game similar to football called Tsu Chu (“kick ball”) was played with two 30ft high bamboo poles acting as goals. Pheninda, a game played by the Greeks since 4 BC, was another game that had many similarities with football. It involved kicking the ball, running with it and handling it. Hapastum was the Roman version of football. It was played in a rectangular field and the object of the game was to throw the ball beyond the opponent’s goal line (For history of football SEE: Butler 1991, 1996, Walvin 1994). In Japan around 400 AC a game called Kemari involved eight players kicking the ball across a ground 14 meters square. In the fifteenth century AC Italy a game called Calcio (from the word “calciare” which means kick in Italian) was played in Florence (For history of football SEE: Butler 1991, 1996, Walvin 1994). As far as the modern version of the game is concerned, it was firstly developed in the eighteenth century. Tony Brown espouses the opinion that football as we know it today has little or nilpotent relevance to the games mentioned above (Brown, 2003). In his article “the early rules of soccer” Brown argues that “in tracing the history of the game, there are three sets of laws in particular that made a significant contribution to today’s game. They are known as Cambridge (1948), Sheffield (1857), Uppingham (1862) and Football Association (1863) rules. The amalgamation of Sheffield and Football Association rules in 1878 provided the first foundations for the development of the game. Since then the phenomenon of football has affected almost every country in the world. FIFA, the organisation responsible for the management of the game has nowadays 205 country-members (FIFA, 2004). The growth of football, though, had a negative aspect; as it considered contributing to the escalation of violence. Incidents of violence in football firstly reported in the 1960s...

Bibliography: Ackoff, R. (1953) “The Design of Social Research” Chicago: The University of Chicago Press
Alexiadis, S
Alexiadis, S. (1989) “Eglimatologia”, Thessaloniki, Greece: Sakoula publications 1989
Back, K
Beccaria, C. (1764) “On Crimes and Punishments IN: Bellamy, R. (editor) “On Crimes and Punishments and Other Writings”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1995.
Black, T. (1993) “Evaluating Social Science Research: an introduction”. London: SAGE Publications Ltd
Bonger, W
Bohm, D. (1983) “Wholeness and the implicate order” London: McGraw-Hill IN: Dey, I. (1993) Qualitative Data analysis: a user-friendly guide for social scientists. London: Routledge
Branner, J
Brown, T. (2003) “The early rules of soccer”. IN: http://www.innotts.co.uk/soccer/hist1.htm
Burgess, E
Butler, B. (1991). “The Official History of the Football Association”. London: Macdonald Queen Anne Press, 1991.
Butler, B. (1996) “The Official Illustrated History of the F.A. Cup”. London: Headline, 1998
Carnibella G
Carrol, R. (1980) "Football hooliganism in England", International Review of Sports Sociology, 15, 2, pages 77-92
Cloward R
Connell, R. W. (1995) “Masculinities”, Cambridge: Polity Press
Creswell, J
Denzim, N. and Lincoln (1998) “Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials” California: SAGE Publications Inc
Dey, I
Dodd, P. and McNee, I. (1998) “England 's Number One” Cornwall: P.I.G. Books.
Dunning, E., Murphy, P. and Waddington, I. (1991) "Anthropological versus sociological approaches to the study of soccer hooliganism: some critical notes", Sociological Review, 39, 3, pages 459-478
Dunning, E., Murphy, P
Engels, F. (1844) The conditions of the working-class in England IN: http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/Engles_Condition_of_the_Working_Class_in_England.pdf
Foldesi, G
Football Spectators Act (1989) IN: www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1989/ukpga_19890037_en_1.htm
Football Offences Act (1991) IN: www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1991/UKpga_19910019_en_1.htm
Football Offences and Disorder Act (1999) IN: www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1999/19990021_en_1.htm
Football Disorder Act (2000) IN: www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts2000/20000025_en_1.htm
Football Disorder Amendment Act, (2002) IN: www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts2002/20020012_en_1.htm
FIFA (2004) “Ranking and Statistics”
Gulianotti, R. (1995) "Participant observation and research into football hooliganism: reflections on the problems of entree and everyday risks", Sociology of Sport Journal, 12, 1, pages 1-20
Harrington, J.A
Hakim, C. (1987) “Research Design: Strategies and Choices in the Design of Social Research”. London: Unwin Hyman Ltd
Hartjen, C
Horak, R. (1991) "Things change: trends in Austrian football hooliganism from 1977-1990", Sociological Review, 39, 3, pages 531-548
Horrocks, R
King, A. (1997) "The post modernity of football hooliganism", British Journal of Sociology, 48, 4, pages 576-593
Kretschmer, E
Lang, Sir J. (1969). “Report of the Working Party on Crowd Behaviour at Football Matches”. London: HMSO IN: Football Violence in Europe A comprehensive SIRC report, SIRC Publications
Lejins, P
Leonard, W, M. (1988) A Sociological Perspective of Sport (Third Edition). New York, Macmillan Publishing Company 1988.
Lombroso, C. (1876) “The Criminal Man” IN: Alexiadis, S. (1989) “Eglimatologia”, Thessaloniki, Greece: Sakkoula publications 1989
Mason, J
Melnick, M. J. (1986) "The mythology of football hooliganism: a closer look at the British experience", International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 21, 1, pages 1-21
Miles, M.B
Murray, C. (1998) “Manchester United: The Field of Dreams from a Research Perspective”, Manchester: Campus Print Ltd.
Piltz, G. (1996) “Social factors influencing sport and violence: on the "problem" of football hooliganism in Germany”. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 31, 1, (49-68)
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Arena Football League Case Study Essay
  • case study Essay
  • Case Study Essay
  • case study Essay
  • Gang Violence Case Study Essay
  • Domestic Violence Case Study Essay
  • Essay on case study
  • Marketing Case Study of Justice League Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free