IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT, VOL. 59, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2012
Inﬂuence of Green and Lean Upstream Supply Chain Management Practices on Business Sustainability Susana G. Azevedo, Helena Carvalho, Susana Duarte, and V. Cruz-Machado Abstract—Green and lean paradigms have been adopted by companies in order to manage their relationships with suppliers in a supply chain management context, but nearly always separately and with little understanding of their inﬂuence on company performance. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for the analysis of the inﬂuence of green and lean upstream supply chain management practices on the sustainable development of businesses. To attend this objective, a set of performance measures covering economic (operational cost, environmental cost, and inventory cost), environmental (business wastage, green image, and CO2 emission), and social (corruption risk, supplier screening and local supplier) perspectives is proposed. An explanatory case study was conducted at a Portuguese automaker to test qualitatively the validity of the proposed theoretical framework. From the case study, a model is suggested, which encompasses the relationships between green and lean upstream supply chain practices and sustainable business development. Index Terms—Automotive industry, green and lean supply chain practices, performance measurement.
I. INTRODUCTION UPPLY chain management (SCM) promotes the integration between companies and their suppliers through the development of supplier partnerships and strategic alliances. Therefore, the set of practices selected to manage the relationships with suppliers, named by upstream supply chain (SC) practices, is a critical issue, since it affects companies and overall SC performance . The recent prominence given to sustainability has made this issue more complex . According to Seuring and Muller , any organization might be held responsible for the environmental and social performance of their suppliers. It is necessary to implement practices that not only promote company and overall SC efﬁciency, but also that focuses on social, economic, and environmental concerns.
Manuscript received July 18, 2011; revised November 20, 2011 and February 3, 2012; accepted February 16, 2012. Date of publication April 5, 2012; date of current version October 16, 2012. This work was supported by Fundacao para ¸˜ a Ciˆ ncia e Tecnologia through Project MIT-Pt/EDAM-IASC/0033/2008. The e work of H. Carvalho was supported by a PhD fellowship from Fundacao para ¸˜ a Ciˆ ncia e Tecnologia (SFRH/BD/43984/2008). The work of S. Duarte was e supported by a Ph.D. fellowship from Fundacao para a Ciˆ ncia e Tecnologia ¸˜ e (SFRH/BD/60969/2009). Review of this manuscript was arranged by Department Editor Q. Zhu. S. G. Azevedo is with the UNIDEMI, Department of Management and Economics, University of Beira Interior, 6200 Covilh˜ , Portugal (e-mail: a [email protected]
). H. Carvalho, S. Duarte, and V. Cruz-Machado are with the UNIDEMI, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculdade de Ciˆncias e e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal (email: [email protected]
; [email protected]
; [email protected]
). Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TEM.2012.2189108
The deployment of adequate upstream SCM practices becomes a crucial issue in businesses sustainability. Welford  arrived at this conclusion focused on a product stewardship strategy. According to this author, such a strategy is only possible if a company has the ability to integrate the perspectives of key external stakeholders, particularly suppliers, into decisions on product design and development. Smart  enhances the contribution of this strategy to businesses sustainability, arguing that product stewardship implies that companies are proactive in liaising with suppliers to minimize the SC environmental impact. Seuring and Muller  also highlighted the...
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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT, VOL. 59, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2012
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Susana G. Azevedo received the Ph.D. degree in management from the University of Beira Interior, Covilh˜ , Portugal. a She is currently an Assistant Professor of logistics and management at the University of Beira Interior. She has published in several international journals and has published books in operations management, logistics, and competitiveness areas. Also, she has collaborated as reviewer with many journals and also international conferences. She has published in several international journals. Her research interests include logistics, information and communication technologies in logistics (radio frequency identiﬁcation) and supply chain management. Dr. Azevedo is an Associate Editor of The International Journal of Management Science and Information Technology and a member of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Business Performance and Supply Chain Modelling. Helena Carvalho received the M.Sc. degree in industrial engineering from the Faculdade de Ciˆncias e e Tecnologia of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal. She is currently a Teaching Assistant in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculdade de Ciˆ ncias e Tecnologia, Universidade e Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. Presently she is developing her Ph.D. thesis in the domain of supply chain resilience. She keeps especial interest in the area of lean, agile, green, and resilient management paradigms, radio frequency identiﬁcation applications, systems modeling, and simulation. She has papers related to these topics published in international journals, international conferences proceedings, and book chapters. She is also part of the International Editorial Review Board of the International Journal of Green Computing in addition to collaborate as reviewer with others international journals and international conferences.
G. AZEVEDO et al.: INFLUENCE OF GREEN AND LEAN UPSTREAM SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Susana Duarte received the M.Sc. degree in industrial engineering from the Faculdade de Ciˆ ncias e e Tecnologia of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal, where he is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in industrial engineering. During 12 years, her professional career was always on consulting of enterprise resource planning systems implementation. Presently she is developing her Ph.D. thesis in the area of lean and green supply chains. She keeps especial interest in the area of supply chain management, applying the management paradigms and performance measurement systems.
V. Cruz-Machado received the Ph.D. degree in computer-integrated manufacturing from Cranﬁeld University, Bedfordshire, U.K. He is currently a Full Professor of industrial engineering at Faculdade de Ciˆ ncias e Tecnologia, Unie versidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. He coordinates post-graduate programs in industrial engineering, project, and lean management. He teaches operations and production management and has published more than 150 papers in scientiﬁc journals and conferences, in addition to having supervised 50 M.Sc. and Ph.D. students. His main scientiﬁc activities are directed to the design of lean supply chains. Dr. Cruz-Machado is the president of UNIDEMI (R&D Unit in Mechanical & Industrial Engineering) and the President of the IIE Portugal Chapter.
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