Hazop study

Topics: Case study, Valve, Piping Pages: 12 (2923 words) Published: September 30, 2013
Satish H. Kashid / Jayant G. Patil


Satish H. Kashid
Jayant G. Patil


The design of engineering piping systems onboard war ships is an extremely complex activity with pipes of various systems running neck to neck through machinery spaces, compartments and decks etc. For validating the design, usually a careful thought process and intuitive imagination is needed to predict the abnormal causes and adverse consequences of all possible deviations from normal operation. A more effective way of doing this is by using HAZOP study method. The HAZOP study is helped along by “guide words” to cover all possible malfunctions in the system in a systematic way. This paper offers an overview of HAZOP formulation procedures and how effectively it can be put to use while validating engineering system (P&I) drawings designed for warships.


Piping is an important element of every stage of project design, purchasing and construction. Piping systems are comparable to the veins and arteries through which fluids, vapours, slurries, solids etc flow under varying conditions. Piping networks onboard warships are subjected to the severest conditions of their process/system such as high pressure, temperature, flow and a combination of all these. In addition to the above, corrosion, erosion and toxic conditions add to the problems and difficulties in piping systems design. For warships, an additional problem is proper routing of pipes so that interference between different system pipes in the compartments and through the decks doesn’t arise. Moreover, the piping systems are to be supported in a way that vibrations, noise due to ship’s rolling and pitching do not get propagated to such an extent, so as to cause undue stresses on the piping systems

While all such designing and piping layout is being done for the ship systems, they are always subject to or prone to errors and misjudgement, simply owing to the sheer complexity of their layout. In particular as ship piping deals with a myriad of systems like sea water, bilge, salvage, fuel, lubrication oil, compressed air and sprinkling etc., they in turn account for a plethora of fittings and associated piping elements. Now how would one be sure of the fact that no risk or hazard whatsoever is arising from design of all these systems, and also take into account their non interference or interference as the case may be with other systems, as these pipes run through numerous small compartments, cramped up lobbies and passage ways etc. Each and every piping element contributes in its own scale to Space, Weight and Cost. Once the pipes are erected and the systems put into use, there is no room to fall back and make amends, especially for warships.

This therefore calls for “Checking”. Checking at each and every stage of piping design is an elaborate and intensive study keeping in mind hazardous situations, system malfunctioning etc. This paper attempts to offer an overview of HAZOP studies and how effectively can it be put into practice while checking piping layout and design of our ship systems. The paper will broadly cover HAZOP formulation procedures, their applications involving case studies for FIRE MAIN SYSTEM for Interceptor Boat and FUEL FILLING & TRANSFER SYSTEM for a typical Corvette class. WHAT IS HAZOP

HAZOP stands for Hazard and Operability Studies. Hazard and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a structured and systematic technique for system examination and risk management. In particular, HAZOP is often used as a technique for identifying potential hazards in a system and identifying operability problems likely to lead to nonconforming products. HAZOP is based on a theory that assumes risk events are caused by deviations from design or operating intentions. Identification of such deviations is facilitated by using sets of “guide words” as a systematic list of...

References: 1. LRS rules for Special Service Craft (2011 edition)
2. Venkatasubramanian, V. and Vaidhyanathan, R., A knowledge based framework for automating HAZOP analysis. AIChE Journal, 1994, 40(3), 496 - 550.
3. Parmar, J. C. and Less, F. P., The propagation of faults in process plants: hazard identification. Reliability Engineering, 1987, 17,277-302. [24] Parmar, J. C
4. Requirements and Guidance for the Procurement of Pumps for Auxiliary System Def Stan 02-327/Issue 11 April 2000
5. Requirements for the Design and Installation of Fuel Systems for Gas Turbine Engines and Diesel Engines in HM Surface Ships and Submarines: Defence Standard 02-320 Issue 2 Publication Date 8 February 2002.
6. Oil and Bilge Water Shipboard Processing Arrangements: Defence Standard 02-322 Issue 2 Publication Date 02 December 2002
7. Seawater systems for HM Surface ships: Naval Engineering standard 719/Issue 02/Oct 1981.
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