Floods was a prominent threat in ancient civilizations as they were mostly situated near river sources, ancient civilizations did not always have the technology to prevent the rising water levels. Floods could threaten aspects of their livelihood like their crops, animals and houses. The floods could cause sicknesses to occur among the people as well. Excavations at Hastinapur, an early Aryan city, show that a part of the city was washed away when the Ganges River overflowed c.800 BCE. Floods in India were so serious that the Indus Valley cities had to be rebuilt several times. Monhenjo-daro was rebuilt six times while Harappa was rebuilt five times. The floods might have led to a breeding of mosquitoes which led to outbreaks of malaria. These floods also destroyed the irrigation system the people depended on for their farming. The rebuilding of cities required a vast amount of resources which than led to a lack of resources. Since the floods destroyed their irrigation systems the people would not have been able to grow their crops and their crops would have been washed away thus leading to famines. The outbreaks of malaria meant there would sicknesses in India which would lead to death of many people in India. Hence, I can conclude that floods were a very prominent threat in ancient civilizations as they caused famines, sicknesses and destroyed homes.
Volcanic eruptions were especially devastating because they were many built near active volcanoes, where the ash from the eruptions made the ground fertile and suitable for farming. They can claim lives and the lava destroys crops and homes. They will have to rebuild their homes. In Southeast Asia, Mount Java erupted in 1006CE. The eruption killed many people ad covered the Borobudur complex with ash. The eruption was the factor that led the rulers of Mataram to shift their capital from central to east Java. Due to the volcanic eruptions, those who survive have no...
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