“The outlier, in the end, is not an outlier at all.”
Malcolm Gladwell’s, Outliers: The Story of Success, provokes reconsideration of the meaning of intelligence and success by challenging the traditional definition and concept of each word. Gladwell’s extensive research within the fields of sociology, psychology, and social psychology display his credibility regarding his critical analysis on success and its causes. In Outliers, Gladwell examines individuals who have reached high levels of success and emphasizes the importance of the contributions from environmental and cultural factors that have led to their success. Throughout the novel, the reader’s knowledge and intellect is tested through persuasive cases and illustrations that support the argument that outliers owe their success to lucky advantages that are out of their control. Interestingly, the book discusses these case studies allowing the reader to draw conclusions that coincide with Gladwell’s findings. The most renowned, successful individuals in the world have had extreme circumstances to thank, along with their dedication and natural intelligence. On several accounts, the observation and exploration of different success stories throughout history have reinforced Gladwell’s conclusion that hidden advantages directly correlate with their exceptional achievements. Each chapter of the book introduces a new characteristic that justifies and confirms Gladwell’s claims with undisputable examples. The ideas that birthdate, 10,000 hour theory, social class, personal backgrounds, particular advantages, demographic, economic and historical factors all contribute to the victories of Bill Joy, the Beatles, Bill Gates, Robert Oppenheimer, Joe Flom, Alexander Bickel, and the Janklow and Borgenicht families are each clearly examined to reiterate Gladwell’s stance of favorable environmental and cultural factors leading to success. Part one of the novel reveals that Canadian professional ice hockey players, Bill...
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